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History and important facts of Buddhism

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Buddhism is a religion and philosophy derived from the Shramana tradition of India. Its founder was Mahatma Buddha Shakyamuni (Gautama Buddha). They lived from 563 BCE to 483 BCE. Buddhism originated before Christianity and Islam. It is the third largest religion in the world after both religions. Most of the followers of this religion live in many countries like China, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and India:

(1) Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. They are called Jyoti Punj of Asia.

(2) Gautama Buddha was born between 563 AD in Lumbini, Nepal near Kapilvastu, the then capital of Shakya Republic.

(3) His father was the head of Shuddhodana Shakya Gan.

(4) Seven days after the birth of Siddharth, his mother Mayadevi died.

(5) Prajapati Gautami, Siddharth’s step mother raised him.

(6) His childhood name was Siddhartha.

(7) Siddhartha was married at the age of 16 to Dandapani Shakya’s daughter Yashodhara.

(8) His son’s name was Rahul.

(9) When Siddhartha went out for a trip to Kapilavastu, he saw four scenes:
(i) old man
(ii) a sick person
(iii)the dead body (iv) an ascetic

(10) Sorrowed by worldly problems, Siddharth left home at the age of 29 years. Which is called Mahabhinishkamana in Buddhism.

(11) After renunciation, Buddha received Sankhya philosophy from Alarkalaam in Vaishali.

(12) Alarkalam was the first Guru of Siddhartha.

(13) After Alarkalam, Siddhartha got education from Rudrakaramput of Rajgir.

(14) In Uruvela, Siddhartha found 5 sadhakas named Kaundinya, Vappa, Bhadia, Mahanama and Assagi.

(15)Siddhartha attained enlightenment under the Peepal tree on the banks of the Niranjana River on the full moon night of Vaishakh at the age of 35, after a hard penance of 6 years without consuming food.

(16) After attaining enlightenment, Siddhartha came to be known as Buddha. The place where he attained enlightenment is known as Bodh Gaya.

(17) Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath which is called Dharmachakra Pranthan in Buddhist texts.

(18) Buddha gave his teachings in Kosala, Kaushambi and Vaishali states in Pali language.

(19) Buddha gave his greatest teachings skills in the country’s capital, Srivasti.

(20) Their main followers were rulers:
(i)
 Bimbasar
(ii) Prasenjit
(iii) Udayan

(21) Buddha died at the age of 80 in Kushinara after consuming food offered by Chund. Which is called Mahaparinirvana in Buddhism.

(22) Mallows performed the funeral rites of Buddha with great respect.

(23) According to a followup, after the death, the remains of Buddha’s body were divided into eight parts and eight stupas were built on them.

(24) The date of birth and death of Buddha has been fixed on the basis of Canton inscription of Chinese tradition.

(25) We get detailed knowledge about Buddhism from Pali Tripitaka.

(26) Buddhism is atheistic and does not even have a vision of the soul.

(27) In Buddhism, there is a belief of rebirth.

(28)Buddha has called nirvana the condition of craving for cravings.

(29) The followers of the Buddha were divided into two parts:
(i) The beggars –
 Those who took up sanyas for the propagation of Buddhism are called beggars.
(ii) Worshipers – Those who adopt Buddhism while living a householder are called worshipers. Their minimum age is 15 years.

(30) The entry into Buddhist Sangha is called Upasampada.

(31) The triratnas of pious Buddhism are
(i) Buddha
(ii) Dhamma
(iii) Sangha

(32) Buddhism divided into two parts after the fourth Buddhist association :
(i) Hinayana
(ii) Mahayana.

(33) The religious procession was first taken out in Buddhism itself.

(34) The most sacred festival of Buddhism is Vaishakh Purnima which is called Buddha Purnima.

(35) Buddha has preached four Aryan truths in relation to worldly sufferings. These are
(i) grief
(ii) grief community
(iii) grief nirodha
(iv) grief nirodhagamini pratipada

(36) Buddha spoke of the eightfold path for liberation from worldly sufferings. These are the means.
(i) right vision
(ii) right resolution
(iii) right speech
(iv) right speech
(v) right lifelong
(vi) right exercise
(vii) Samyak Smriti
(viii) Samyak Samadhi

(37) According to the Buddha, after following the asexual paths, the human soul is destroyed and attains nirvana.

(38) Buddha has emphasized 10 things for attaining nirvana:
(i) non-violence
(ii) truth
(iii) not stealing
(iv) not possessing any kind of property
(v) not consuming alcohol
(vi) ) Eating timeless
(vii) Not sleeping in a pleasant bed
(viii) Not accumulating wealth
(ix) Staying away from women
(X) Staying away from dancing songs etc.

(39)Buddha preached the Middle Way.

(40) There is a similarity between Buddhism and Jainism in relation to Atheism.

(41) Jataka tales show that the incarnation of Bodhisattva can be in human form and also in the form of animals.

(42) The Buddha attained his final birth as Shakta Muni under a long series of reincarnations as Bodhisattvas.

(43) Most of the Buddha statues were built under the Gandhar style. But the first statue of Buddha was built under Mathura art.

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